### Introduction to low-dimensional systems

Introduction to low-dimensional systems Introduction The GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure and two-dimensional electron or hole system Split gates and one-dimensional electron gases References Introduction The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure is a very fruitful...

### Electrons in few dimensions

Electrons in few dimensions The integer quantum Hall effect (2D) The fractional quantum Hall effect (2D) One-dimensional electron transport (1D) Coulomb blockade in a quantum dot (0D) The integer quantum Hall effect List of publications . At high magnetic field B, the electronic density of states...

### Low-dimensional electron systems in a perpendicular magnetic field

Low-dimensional electron systems in a perpendicular magnetic field Low-field Quenching of the Hall effect around zero magnetic field The Aharonov-Bohm effect High-field Quenching of the quantum Hall effect at high magnetic fields Edge states in the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects...

### Antidots

Antidots List of publications . In a moderate or high magnetic field, electrons are confined to the edges of a sample, in edge states, one for each Landau level. We have developed techniques for fabricating a pair of constrictions on either side of a separately-contacted 0.3 micron diameter disc-...

### Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs)

Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) Introduction SAW transducers Wafers References Introduction List of publications . Surface-acoustic waves (SAWs) are sound waves that travel parallel to the surface of an elastic material, with their displacement amplitude decaying into the material so that they are...

### Low-temperature scanning probes

Low-temperature scanning probes Introduction Imaging quantum billiard orbits Erasable electrostatic lithography Coulomb charging in quantum dots Microconstrictions in long wires Backscattering from 1D channels Other experiments Scanning detectors Imaging cyclotron orbits 1D wavefunctions Tip...